Hello, Shmj, you wrote: S> It would be interesting to see such mechanical element which strengthens a signal. While in doubt its existence. Go to a bathroom and turn . The small effort to a lamb controls the big capacity of a pressure of a stream. Gain - at all electronics prerogative. If there is an exterior application of energy, implementation of a strengthening element - the trivial engineering task. S> like write that from 1 atom created the transistor. Willingly I trust. Why also is not present? S> the Material basis of calculation. Let's argue. That the subject could produce calculation, it should be composite. Even banal I-not as assumes that we have two inputs and one output. Total three , together giving one cumulative effect. System , in which "ability to produce calculation" - it property. And what such property? It is such piece which is present at system as a whole, but at all misses in all its components taken separately. Here also it turns out that if it is not implemented by three plates "ability to calculate I-not" is not present property at one of plates and, especially, at atoms of these plates, and the more so at subatomic particles of these atoms. Actually, in it the main weakness . Trying to comprehend an essence of the phenomenon which happens only , decomposes system on components and, as a result, tries to discover in these components what in them is not present and cannot be. S> is not present, not . And minimum system which is capable of calculations. Probably that it unique and all remaining only superstructures. Here it "and all remaining only superstructures" very persistently hints that you try to implement principal unrealizable dream - to find the elementary brick properties. That then from these bricks itself watched property was added by a method of simple accumulation (or as like to speak , through amount passage in quality). But that's just the point that all without an exception (since on determination) properties of all without an exception of systems are, as a matter of fact, the nonzero total of zero. Such hogwash. They, reptiles such, do not submit to the conservation law and consequently easily arise from anywhere and leave in anywhere. Certainly, despite told by me here about systems and them properties, there is one small a question. Calculation - rather amusing process implying that its result implicitly contains in the initial data and algorithm. For example, the answer to a question "will is 123+777" already how many in the question, only it not to receive without working off of process of calculation. That is before start of process the result in one sense is, and in other sense it is not present. Prokruchivanie calculations does so that it was in all senses. And the most important resource necessary for obtaining of the answer is time. At least because points "to" and "after" cannot coincide. Trying to argue on a physical basis of an event, we by all means walk smack that to us the physical nature of time is unknown. That is well absolutely. No idea at anybody. Such affairs.