Hello, Marty, you wrote: M> Russia - Pskov, Novgorod, such, . Monasteries, besides, as fortresses - same Kirillo-Beozersky, like Poles choked with it. Well is not all Russia, more its western part. M> the Kremlin is that? This place at settlement center where in case of an attack of the enemy commoners from suburbs took cover also. M> and what such the lock? The lock is a slot from which the backward graph-baron made incursions on environmental settlements I heard this "" once for a long time, only about locks was said that the lock - for defense of local elite against dissatisfied lackeys. M> both there and there walls from stones, but the nuance is... I still will add - once for a long time in the west of present Russia democracy rather not bad worked, self-management and the transnational competitive environment we recall Pskov - about its veche where there was a pluralism of judgements and compromise decisions for a society were carried out. With its markets on which merchants from the different countries traded. And on Varangians were invited, whose abstracts were carefully studied, they transited interview and received dzhob-offer from a local society. Walls built on self-management principles - jointly, for population protection - and enemies transited the exterior walls, all people took cover with boyars and fought with them shoulder to shoulder in Except. Them, walls, by the way was the whole 5 rings on peak - it was now saved only 3. However, permanently someone wanted to crush Pskov under itself(himself) - that Novgorod (at which with democracy was worse) Europeans (at those generally values at level of the dark Middle Ages stuck), and then and Moscow with its totalitarianism and the centralized power.