Read 1 head of Oracle Concepts and start to understand in what you are going to be got involved.
Short, very roughly and :
Oracle database - file set + a dial-up of processes
dbf files - binary files dataful, belong to one of tabular spaces
+ system tabular space - the system dictionary of objects of basis
+ undo tabular space - segments of rollback of transactions
+ redo files - logs of advancing record
+ Additional files temp, bfile and some other
It is necessary to divide logic level:
- Tabular space,
- The circuit,
And physical level:
In an operating time, a DBMS forms so-called SCN (System Change Number) - temporal labels. The same unit / a set of records in it can during the same moment of time in basis can have some not fixed states (with miscellaneous SCN). At the moment of fixing commit, this unit is written in redo, and commit complete session receives only during the moment when the vector the data registers in a disk in a file redo. Thus actually changed unit of a file registers in the place afterwards when it will be convenient for a DBMS (checkpoit). So-called delayed write.
Not fixed data is stored in cache block, thus, the old data (which are used at recoil/rollback) in a logical type (a change vector) in undo
In case of failure, at start, the basis , writes down all changes stored in redo on units of tabular spaces (files) and them for one moment of time/SCN
Fulfills the physical coordination of files
After that, for the logical coordination, regular image rolls away not complete transactions using the information from undo. And only after that the basis opens and it is possible to obtain the data from a DBMS.
Thus, to open basis for reading, it is necessary for you:
1) a software of a DBMS of Oracle of that version and the same OS (not absolutely so, but now on it we we will not stop) on which the basis (Including patches worked)
2) to provide a coordination of all file set, that is to have file set of the data + a dial-up redo for the physical coordination of basis.
To lift the remained FULL! File set, it is necessary to have skills DBA.
Approximate disaster volume:
Operation of cloning of basis, than that is similar to your task.