"Ukrainians" - artificially invented nation in 19 century. Before entrance of Left-bank Ukraine in composition of Russia in 17 century the population of Ukraine (both Left-bank, and Right-bank) shared on two people: and . - offsprings of the East slavic population of the Kiev Russia. Lived in Chernigovshchine, in the north of Kievshchiny, on Volhynia (Zhitomir, Rovno, Volynsk areas), in Galicia, Zakarpate and Bukovina (present Western Ukraine). - fair-haired light-eyed people. - offsprings of Circassians and the Turkic people which have appeared in territory of the Central Ukraine in 10 - 15 centuries. In 10 - 13 centuries them named , in 14 century - , since 15 centuries - Cossacks. also became a basis of the Zaporozhye Cossacks. lived in the south of present Kiev area, in territory present Poltava, Cherkassk, Zaporozhye (north), Dnepropetrovsk areas. - dark-haired black-eyed people. The population of Slobozhanshchiny (Slobodsky Ukraine - present Sumy, Kharkov areas of Ukraine and the Belgorod region Russia) was mixed - there lived , , . In 17 century Russia wanted to join (as they remembered consanguinity with ), and at (the Zaporozhye Cossacks) such desire, generally speaking, was not. On Rejaslavsky Rade in 1654 Bogdana Khmelnitskiy had many opponents. The Zaporozhye Cossacks are were roll-field: yesterday were with Poland, today with Russia, tomorrow will be with Turkey and the Crimean khanate. The Zaporozhye Cossacks should not be idealized - it is necessary to study their true history.